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From a Europe- an perspective, it also faces the paradox of being one of the closest and yet less known non-Latin scripts. Neotiinagh alphabets 35 4. Undertaking a bicameral Tiinagh To transform a monocameral script into a bicameral one was re- 6. Minuscules have also maintained their original use as a func- tional, less formal everyday script. However, when it comes to long texts, it presents the same readability drawbacks monotony, poor word shapes and lack of rhythm as other scripts when they are set all in capitals.

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This remarkable project comprised not only two variants of the Tii- nagh script — for writing either from left to right or from right to left — but also the Arabic and the Latin scripts, allowing the writing of the Amazigh language in any of the three scripts. The irst decade of the 21st century witnesses a profusion of new Tiinagh fonts. These changes affect not only the design of the characters but also the underlying principles of the writing system —like the addition of vowels for instance — and could be deined as systemic Salomon The capitalis monumentalis have remained almost unchanged up to present day — likewise the Tiinagh letterforms — but those informal everyday styles experienced an independent evolution, leading to a multitude of hands all over Europe. Less sharp and more consistent than its predecessor Tifinagh Ircam Unicode. This was the irst typewriter capable of writing the Tiinagh script. Concerning its prospects, these recent developments suggest that the Tiinagh script will continue increasing its presence step by step.

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Translittération

Designed and formatted by Juan Luis Blanco Word count: Size indications and sources are provided in the captions. Abstract Tiinagh is an ancient script used in several areas of North Africa to write the Amazigh language.

This dissertation discusses its con- text, history and development, and how they inluence the making of Tiinagh digital fonts today. It looks particularly into the work of the Moroccan Institut Royal de la Culture Amazighe ircam and the challenges associated with the design of typefaces tifinahh the context of complex ongoing standardisation processes. Amazigh and Tiinagh in Morocco 11 1.

Tiinagh in use tifinagy 2. Origin and development 19 2. Printing types 29 3. Neotiinagh alphabets 35 4. Meetei Mayek 37 4. Related contemporary fonts 39 4.

tifinagh latin ircam

Expansion of the typographical repertoire 41 5. Morphology of capital, cursive and minuscule letterforms 47 5. From a Europe- an perspective, it also faces the paradox of being one of the closest and yet less known non-Latin scripts. Therefore, a sound presenta- 1. Youssef Ait Ouguengay is the Director of tion of the script regarding its geographical and linguistic contexts, the Computer Science Studies, Information Systems and Communications Center cei- usage, main features, origin, evolution and current state, as well sicdependant of the ircam.

Mohammed Lguensat is an artist, graphic The most signiicant information source for these chapters was the designer and lecturer based in Taroudant documentation centre of the Institute Royal de la Culture Amazighe Morocco. He is the author of Aménagement ircam in Rabat Morocco. Other sources were also consulted to graphique de Tiinaghe.

tifinagh latin ircam

The ield trip to Rabat and south Morocco provided interesting graphic material but, above all, it helped achieve a better understanding of the sociolinguistic reality of the country.

After having set this necessary ircwm, Chapters 4 and 5 will analyse in depth the typographic contribution of the ircam, focus- ing speciically on the projects aimed at the development of cursive and lowercase alphabets. The interviews held with Mr Youssef Ait Ouguengay1 in Rabat and with Mr Mohammed Lguensat2 in Agadir were fundamental to understanding the dificulties and the chal- lenges involved in these processes.

They shared valuable details that would have been impossible to discover from other sources.

Polices et claviers UNICODE

Adapted by the author. Set with Tifis, by Yannis Haralambousthe irst font that allowed setting Amazigh texts in the three scripts. It also irdam the Institut Royal de la Culture Amazighe ircamthe public institution that issued the digital fonts that will be analysed in Chapters 4 and 5. Finally, some examples of the Tii- nagh script obtained during the ield trip are shown in their context. The term and the Siwa Oasis in Egypt Figure 1. Amazigh speakers do not use area.

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Without attempting to be exhaustive, they can be grouped into it either for their people or their language, four general categories: Icram, Eastern, Tamasheq and Zenaga. Remarkably, none of the coun- fer to their language.

Tiinagh is the native writing system of the Amazigh language. Its origin is still under discussion see Section 2. Despite this widespread presence, however, its use decreased dramatically due to coloni- sation, and only the Tuaregs kept it alive. In the second half of the 20th century, Amazigh cultural movements undertook a renais- sance of Tiinagh and today it is increasingly used to signify the Amazigh identity — something that in some cases has clashed with prevalent national conceptions and, more commonly, with govern- mental language policies in the countries in which it is used.

Which script for the Amazigh language? The Tiinagh script exists in a multilingual and multi-script envi- ronment. As a result, the Amazigh language adopted other scripts over history and it uses three different writing systems nowadays Figure 1.

The Arabic script was irst introduced in the Amazigh world in the 7th century ad by Muslims. It was the common script for the Amazigh manuscripts written in the Middle Tiflnagh see Section 3.

tifinagh latin ircam

The Arabic tifinnagh is often associated with Arabisation and Islam, which raises either criticism or support depending on the provenance of the appraisal. From the s onwards, a modiied Latin alphabet using diacritics for Amazigh-speciic phonemes has become a standard that has gained great acceptance, mainly in Al- geria. Its supporters claim its large tradition as well as its universal status, since the Latin script is used for widely spoken languages.

Furthermore, using other scripts is regarded as a step backwards Toudji However, some see it as a colonial imposition that would keep Amazigh people away from Islam Lounaouci Since the s the use of the Tiinagh script has experienced a slight increase although it is far from being the most used.

Its partisans contend that the natural choice for a language is to be written with its original script. In their view, any other alternative would mean neglecting the Amazigh identity. Besides, not having to choose between an Eastern and a Tifinsgh script makes the option of Tiinagh more neutral,2 which eventually would allow it to play a 2.

However, Matthias Brenzinger Its crit- points out that it has also been regarded as ics claim, however, that it is totally disconnected from the current a threat to Arab Muslim identity Boukous They also question its suitability as tiinagh functional writing system and regard it as an obstacle for the propagation of Amazigh 3. There exists an ideological association between gualism — is a common phenomenon. In any case, it is apparent that, whichever choice is made, it goes far beyond the practicalities of typography and communication.

Up to 14 languages have been recorded in its territory Lewis et al.

Polices et claviers UNICODE | Institut Royal de la Culture Amazighe

The major ones regarding their use as mother-tongue languages are Moroccan Arabic, Tifknagh and French. As for the Tiinagh script, its presence does not correspond at all with the number of Amazigh speakers in Morocco.

This stems from the historical prevalence of the Arabic and Latin scripts in the coun- try, which have been mostly adopted to write in Amazigh, but also from the monolingual approach — either Arabic or French — of lan- guage policies in the last century. However, the state of the Amazigh language and the Tiinagh script has improved signiicantly over the last few decades as a re- sult of the claims of Amazigh cultural movements in the s.

The spine on the right hand side indicates that right-to-left reading Arabic is still preferential. As a result, in Septemberthe irst schools hosted Amazigh and the Tiinagh script for the irst time in the his- tory of the Moroccan educational system Boukous Even- tually, inAmazigh irrcam recognition as the second oficial language of Morocco. The irst public decision made by the ircam was the choice of Tiinagh as tifknagh oficial script for the Amazigh language, which gave rise to criticism from both Islamic groups and tifinagn promot- ing the Latin script.

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These works were carried out by the Centre for Language Planning cal and the Centre for Informatics Studies, Information Systems and Commu- nication ceisic together with other external institutions. Concerning typeface design, ircam have published more than 25 digital fonts since They also commissioned a study on Tii- nagh cursive forms and bicameralism from Mr Mohammed Lguen- sat, which will be analysed in depth in Chapter 5.

Some examples of pre- sent uses of the Tiinagh script are discussed below. Signage and information design are a customary domain for Tiinagh as that was historically one of its main purposes. The growing awareness of Morocco as a multilingual society means that it is increasingly common to ind trilingual signs in many public buildings like schools, universities, courts, ministries, hospitals and museums Figure 1.

However, its use is far from being normalised. Even in areas with high Amazigh speaking rates like Agadir, signs in Amazigh language are still written mostly with the Latin script. Its use in publications is still rather limited. It has been used pri- marily in Amazigh cultural magazines, some of which included in their pages lessons to learn the Tiinagh script. Examples of news- papers connected with Amazigh movements can also be found, Figure 1. Its use as a literary or scientiic script in books is still far behind the Arabic or French scripts, although the ircam is making considerable efforts in this regard Figure 1.

Its Internet presence is also increasing since new digital fonts have been adapted and encoded for the web. Moreover, several apps for smartphones aimed at learning the Tiinagh script are download- able on the Internet and, since Januarya new app to install a Tiinagh font for Android interfaces is also available Figure 1.

Signiicantly, the typefaces most used in all these examples are the Tiinagh Ircam Unicode or similarly geometric monolinear de- signs, which gives an idea of what Moroccan authors and publish- ers regard as Tiinagh. Concerning its prospects, these recent developments suggest that the Tiinagh script will continue increasing its presence step by step.

The most likely media to take it over might be those targeted speciically at Amazigh-speaking people, like books, magazines or advertisements. Besides, its new status as oficial language from suggests that it will probably start to be used in oficial docu- ments and communications as well as other eminently symbolic media such as stamps or bank notes.

Acacus mountains southern Lybia. British Library Figure 2. An introduction to the alphabet, its origin and development, details of the current standardised version, and an analysis of its morphology will help the reader become familiar with it and provide the necessary background to fully understand the following chapters.

In early inscrip- tions it might be found arranged horizontally — either from left to right or from right to left; vertically — bottom to top or top to bot- tom; or even in boustrophedon, circle or spiral Figures 2. The alphabet is unicase; that is, no differentiation between capi- tals and minuscules is made in its original form.

The standard set comprises 33 basic characters: Up to 22 additions can be found in the extended set for dialectal variants. Priest regards the widespread use of Words are separated using spaces, although the tazarast sym- the blank space instead of the tazarast as a bol Figure 2.

Yet her proposal Niger, Mali and Algeria. The symbol was eventually in- same applies to the numerals, which have no representation in the cluded in code 6. Tiinagh script other than the words they are named with. Aghali-Zakara reports that numbers are plete the letters of the Tiinagh block.

Their usage is rather limited literally written, and a common use of numerical symbols among the different though. In any case, the diacritic marks are shared with the Latin Amazigh dialects does not seem to exist.